Recommendations for the transportation of wire ropes
Recommendation for wire ropes transportation
- Ropes can be transported by any transport type in opened and closed vehicles in compliance with shipping rules applicable for given transport type. Loading and fixing of freights for rail transport is performed in compliance with acting rules.
- Ropes are supplied on drums or in coils based on diameter, length and customer requirenments.
- After the ropes is shipped to place of storage or operation it should be unloaded in such way that the rope and drum will not be damaged. It is forbidden to fling down rope on drum from a vehicle or unload it in such way that will damage the rope or lubrication layer. During unloading operation the rope itself should not be in contact with any parts of lifting device, such as crane hook or forklift. It is better to use textile slings
Wire rope cutting
- While cutting of the rope on both sides from the cut the bandages of soft wire should be applied. Amount and width of bandages should be chosen in such way to prevent strand from unwinding. Distance between bandages should be not less than lay length.
- While cutting of spiral carrier ropes, closed ropes and multilayer stranded ropes two 4bolted clamps should be applied on both sides of the cut, distance between them should be equal to 2-4 rope diameters. As substitution of two 4bolted clamps eight 2bolted clamps can be used installed back-to-back to each other, while width of each should be equal to diameter of the rope. After the cut and before the clamps can be removed rope ends should be firmly welded.
- It is forbidden to cut wire ropes using electrical welding.
- Absence of proper bandages way cause wire rope deformation.
Wire rope installation
- After delivery on work place the rope should be checked for absence of damages
- Before installation the condition and parameters of machine should be inspected. All elements that directly interacts with the rope, like drums, pulleys should be checked to confirm their usability.
- Special focus should be on parameters and condition of pulley grooves and drum grooves. Groove diameter should not exceed 7.5% of nominal wire rope diameter. It is controlled using special tools for grooves.
- It is forbidden to use wire ropes with traces of wear, violation of surface sleekness or non-conformity of groove parameters.
- Excessively narrow grooves will clamp and deform wire rope, which might cause premature wire rope malfunction. Excessively wide grooves will provide insufficient pivot, which will result in contact pressures enlargement and wires tears.
- Inclination of grooves on wrench drum should be equal to 1.15dr – for ropes up to 10mm diameter, 1.12dr – for ropes up to 20mm diameter, 1.11dr – for ropes from 20mm diameter (dr – diameter of the rope). Under any circumstances actual rope diameter should not exceed inclination of grooves.
- Groove angle should be within the range from 45° to 60°.
- Groove angle from 30° to 45° is acceptable while deviation angle is less than 1°.
- Deviation angles should be within the range of 0.5° up to 2.5°. Deviation angle should be limited by 2.5° for grooved drums and by 1.5° for smooth drums. For rotation resistant, low rotating and parallel laid ropes deviation angle should be limited by 1.5°.
- Diameter and amount of pulleys in the system influence on wire rope lifespan. The lifespan of ropes working on pulleys is based on correctly chosen ration of wire rope to pulley diameter Dd/Dr. Standards for different exploitation conditions usually have info about minimum Dd/Dr.
Wire rope exploitation
- Correct reeling, installation and maintenance of wire rope significantly prolongs its lifespan. Maintenance, replacement, cutting, installation of wire rope should be performed under supervision of experienced employee, in accordance with safety regulations and manufacturer’s instructions.
- Wire ropes with fiber cores and fiber inputs should be used in environment temperature not exceeding 100°. Wire ropes with metal cores should be used in environment temperature not exceeding 200° with limitation of maximum working load based on the time of high temperature exposure and of individual wires diameter. With operating temperature 100°-200° load capacity decreases by 10%. For 200°-300° – 25%, for 300°-400° – 35%. In case of doubts info from wire rope manufacturers
- Exploitation of wire ropes in low temperatures conditions (lower than -40°) will not cause load capacity reduction. However for operation in conditions lower than -40° and higher than 80° special rope lubricants should be used.
- On initial exploitation stage wire rope faces constructional elongation and internal stress distribution, considering it the rope should pass a break-in. Break-in should be done with progressive load and speed increasing. This will grant the progressive internal stress stabilization.
- It is forbidden to make a break-in with maximum load or even worse with overload.
- After installation and break-in the rope, attachment points should be checked. If there are no deviations from standards the rope could be used in regular mode.
- While rope is in operation the pulleys and drums condition should be periodically checked. For rotation they must be properly lubricated. Do not allow the act of friction of rope and elements of construction or ground.
- For multilayer reeling drums ropes with metal cores and/or with compacted strands should be used as they have higher radial pressure resistance.
- To reduce wear on local runs, thus prolong rope lifespan we recommend to shorten the rope after some period of exploitation. In such case the runs that faced more wear are shifted and the untouched once start to work. Cutting of ropes tha are used in harsh condition should be done periodically.
- For multilayer reeling it is recommend to use its full length. In case if long term use of just a part of the rope, it is necessary to switch to shorter one.
- During exploitation lapping and loosen of rope should be excluded.
- Transvers wobbling should be exluded.